There is increasing work on printed inorganics as people struggle with the performance of organics in some aspects. For conductors with vastly better conductance and cost, for the best printed batteries, for quantum dot devices and for transistor semiconductors with ten times the mobility, look to the new inorganics. That is the emerging world of new nanoparticle metal and alloy inks that are magnitudes superior in cost, conductivity and stability, such as the flexible zinc oxide based transistor semiconductors working at ten times the frequency and with best stability and life, along with many other inorganic materials. Read the world's only report that pulls all this together in readable form.
This report critically compares the options, the trends and the emerging applications. It is the first in the world to comprehensively cover this exciting growth area. The emphasis is on technology basics, commercialisation and the key players.
This report is suitable for all companies developing or interested in the opportunity of printed or thin film electronics materials, manufacturing technologies or complete device fabrication and integration.Market forecasts
IDTechEx forecasts a market of $45 Billion for printed electronics by 2022 and that market is expected to be more or less evenly divided between organic and inorganic materials.
This report reveals the rapidly increasing opportunities for inorganic and composite chemicals in the new printed electronics, given that so much of the limelight is on organics. Inorganics encompass various metals, metal oxides as transparent conductors (such as fluorine tin oxide or indium tin oxide, extensively used in displays and photovoltaic technologies) or transistor materials as well as nano-silicon or copper and silver inks, whether in particle or flake form. Then there are inorganic quantum dots, carbon structures such as graphene, nanotubes and the various buckyballs etc. However, there is much more, from light emitting materials to battery elements and the amazing new meta-materials that render things invisible and lead to previously impossible forms of electronics.
Over the next ten years, improvements in inorganic conductors such as the use of nanotechnology and the lack of improvement of the very poorly conductive and expensive organic alternatives means that inorganics will be preferred for most conductors whether for electrodes, antennas, touch buttons, interconnects or for other purposes. By contrast, organic substrates for flexible electronics such as low cost polyester film and paper will be preferred in most cases because they are light weight, low cost and have a wide range of mechanical flexibility. The use of inorganic substrates such as glass represents a fall-back particularly required where there is failure to reduce processing temperatures. Here stainless steel foil printed reel to reel is an improvement, where possible.
The report considers inorganic printed and thin film electronics for displays, lighting, semiconductors, sensors, conductors, photovoltaics, batteries and memory giving detailed company profiles not available elsewhere. The coverage is global - with companies from East Asia to Europe to America all included.
The application of the technology in relation to other types such as organic electronics and silicon chips is given, with detailed information clearly summarised in over 160 tables and figures.
Elements being targeted
In order to meet the widening variety of needs for printed and potentially printed electronics, not least in flexible, low cost form, a rapidly increasing number of elements are being brought to bear. Oxides, amorphous mixtures and alloys are particularly in evidence. Even the so-called organic devices such as OLEDs variously employ such materials as B, Al and Ti oxides and nitrides as barrier layers against water and oxygen, Al, Cu, Ag and indium tin oxide as conductors, Ca or Mg cathodes and CoFe nanodots, Ir and Eu in light emitting layers, for example.
This report is essential for all those wishing to understand this technology, the players, opportunities and applications, to ensure they are not surpassed.1. INTRODUCTION1.1. Printed electronics - reasons why1.2. Impact of printed electronics on conventional electronics1.3. Progress so far1.3.1. The age of silicon1.3.2. The dream of organic electronics1.3.3. The example of smart clothing1.3.4. Slow progress with organic conductors1.3.5. Boron nitride - tailoring carbon composites1.4. The new inorganic printed and thin film devices1.4.1. Rapidly widening choice of elements - déjà vu1.4.2. Metamaterial solar cells and sensors1.4.3. Example - printed lighting1.4.4. Example - printed photodetectors1.4.5. Inorganic barrier layers - alumina, silicon nitride, boron nitride etc2. INORGANIC TRANSISTORS2.1. Inorganic compound semiconductors for transistors2.1.1. Learning how to print inorganic compound transistors2.1.2. Zinc oxide based transistor semiconductors and Samsung breakthrough2.1.3. Aluminium oxide n type transistor semiconductor2.1.4. Amorphous InGaZnO2.1.5. Gallium-indium hydroxide nanoclusters2.1.6. Gallium arsenide semiconductors for transistors2.1.7. Transfer printing silicon and gallium arsenide on film2.1.8. Silicon nanoparticle ink2.1.9. Molybdenite transistors at EPFL Lausanne2.1.10. Carbon nanotube TFTs at SWeNT2.2. Inorganic dielectrics for transistors2.2.1. Solution processed barium titanate nanocomposite2.2.2. Alternative inorganic dielectrics HafSOx etc2.2.3. Hybrid inorganic dielectrics - zirconia2.2.4. Hafnium oxide - latest work2.2.5. Aluminium, lanthanum and other oxides2.3. Hewlett Packard prints aSi backplanes reel to reel2.4. Inorganic transistors on paper2.5. Progress Towards p-type Metal Oxide Semiconductors2.6. High-Mobility Ambipolar Organic-Inorganic Hybrid Transistors2.7. Hybrid inorganic/organic transistors and memory2.7.1. Resistive switching2.7.2. Oxides as anodes2.8. Do organic transistors have a future?2.9. Latest progress2.9.1. Oxide Semiconductors2.9.2. Carbon Nanotubes2.9.3. Organics2.9.4. Nickel oxide transistors and sensors2.9.5. Inorganic transistors for ubiquitous RFID2.9.6. Others3. INORGANIC PHOTOVOLTAICS AND THERMOELECTRIC3.1. Performance criteria and limitations of silicon photovoltaics3.2. Comparison of photovoltaic technologies3.3. Non-silicon inorganic options3.3.1. Lowest cost solar cells - CuSnZnSSe?3.3.2. Copper Indium Gallium diSelenide (CIGS)3.3.3. Gallium arsenide3.3.4. Gallium arsenide - germanium3.3.5. Gallium indium phosphide and gallium indium arsenide3.3.6. Cadmium telluride and cadmium selenide3.3.7. Bismuth ferrite - new principle of operation3.3.8. Porous zinc oxide3.3.9. Polymer-quantum dot devices CdSe, CdSe/ZnS, PbS, PbSe3.3.10. Cuprous oxide PV3.3.11. Other inorganic semiconductors for PV3.4. Inorganic-organic and carbon-organic formulations3.4.1. Titanium dioxide Dye Sensitised Solar Cells (DSSC)3.4.2. Zinc oxide DSCC photovoltaics3.4.3. Development of high-performance organic-dye sensitized solar cells3.4.4. Fullerene enhanced polymers3.5. Other recent advances3.6. Cobalt, phosphate and ITO to store the energy3.7. Major US funding for thin Si, CIGS/ZnMnO, DSSC photovoltaics3.8. Nanoplasmonic silicon film photovoltaics4. BATTERIES AND SUPERCAPACITORS4.1. Applications of laminar batteries4.2. Technology and developers4.2.1. All-inorganic printed lithium electric vehicle battery: Planar Energy4.2.2. Zirconium disulphide4.2.3. Battery overview4.2.4. The Paper Battery Co4.2.5. Nanotecture4.2.6. CEA Liten4.2.7. Rocket Electric, Bexel, Samsung, LG Chemicals and micro SKC batteries for Ubiquitous Sensor Networks4.2.8. Power Paper4.2.9. Solicore, USA4.2.10. SCI, USA4.2.11. Infinite Power Solutions, USA4.2.12. Blue Spark Technologies, USA4.2.13. Enfucell4.2.14. Imprint4.2.15. Printed battery research4.3. Smart skin patches4.4. Nano metal oxides with carbon create new supercapacitor5. CONDUCTORS, SENSORS, METAMATERIALS AND MEMRISTORS5.1. Silver, indium tin oxide and general comparisons.5.2. Conductor deposition technologies5.3. Breakthroughs in printing copper5.3.1. Challenges with copper5.3.2. University of Helsinki5.3.3. NanoDynamics5.3.4. Applied Nanotech Holdings5.3.5. Samsung Electro-Mechanics5.3.6. Intrinsiq announces nano copper for printing5.3.7. NovaCentrix5.3.8. Hitachi Chemical5.4. Conductive Inks5.5. Progress with new conductive ink chemistries and cure processes5.5.1. Novacentrix PulseForge5.6. Pre-Deposit Images in Metal PDIM5.7. Transparent conductors/electrodes by metal patterning and transparent materials5.7.1. Metal patterning5.7.2. Nanocarbon hybrid transparent electrodes5.8. Transparent conductors by growth of metal5.9. Particle-free silver inks5.9.1. University of Illinois5.10. Printed conductors for RFID tag antennas5.10.1. Print resolutions required for high performance RFID tag antennas5.10.2. Process cost comparison5.10.3. RFID tag manufacture consolidation and leaders5.11. Printing wide area sensors and their memory: Polyscene, Polyapply, 3Plast, PriMeBits, Motorola5.12. Phase Change Memory5.13. Printing metamaterials5.14. Quantum Tunneling Composites (QTC)5.15. Flexible memristors5.16. Company profiles5.16.1. ASK5.16.2. Poly-Flex5.16.3. Avery Dennison5.16.4. Sun Chemical (Coates Circuit Products)5.16.5. Mark Andy5.16.6. InTune (formerly UPM Raflatac)5.16.7. Stork Prints5.17. Aerosol jet printing by Optomec5.18. Electroless plating and electroplating technologies5.18.1. Conductive Inkjet Technology5.18.2. Meco5.18.3. Additive Process Technologies Ltd5.18.4. Ertek5.18.5. Leonhard Kurz5.18.6. Hanita Coatings5.19. Polymer - metal suspensions5.20. Comparison of options5.21. Dry Phase Patterning (DPP)5.22. Inorganic biomedical sensors5.22.1. Disposable blocked artery sensors5.22.2. Disposable asthma analysis6. NANOTUBES AND NANOWIRES6.1. Nanotubes6.2. At Stanford, nanotubes + ink + paper = instant battery6.3. Carbon Nanotubes and printed electronics6.4. Developers of Carbon Nanotubes for Printed Electronics6.5. Nanorods in photovoltaics6.6. Zinc oxide nanorod semiconductors6.7. Zinc oxide nano-lasers6.8. Indium oxide nanowires6.9. Zinc oxide nanorod piezo power7. INORGANIC AND HYBRID DISPLAYS AND LIGHTING7.1. AC Electroluminescent7.1.1. Fully flexible electroluminescent displays7.1.2. Watch displays7.1.3. MorphTouch™ from MFLEX7.1.4. Electroluminescent and other printed displays7.2. Thermochromic7.2.1. Heat generation and sensitivity7.2.2. CASE STUDY: Duracell battery testers7.3. Electrophoretic7.3.1. Background7.3.2. Applications of E-paper displays7.3.3. Electrochromic E-Paper using ZnO Nanowire Array7.3.4. The Killer Application7.4. Colour electrophoretics7.5. Inorganic LED lighting and hybrid OLED7.5.1. Nth Degree Technologies - printing LED lighting7.5.2. Tungsten oxide OLED Hole Transport layer7.6. Affordable electronic window shutters7.7. Quantum dot lighting and displays8. COMPANY PROFILES8.1. Boeing Spectrolab8.2. Cambrios8.3. DaiNippon Printing8.4. Evonik8.5. G24i8.6. Hewlett Packard8.7. InkTec8.8. ITRI Taiwan8.9. Kovio Inc8.10. Miasolé8.11. NanoForge8.12. Nanogram Teijin8.13. NanoMas Technologies8.14. Peratech8.15. Samsung8.16. Soligie8.17. Toppan Forms9. TIMELINES, SIZING OF OPPORTUNITIES AND MARKET FORECASTS9.1.